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Irregular verbs [Apr. 5th, 2011|03:51 pm]
learn_hebrew

learn_hebrew

[gavyarii]
I am starting to learn the different binyanim and have come across several verbs that just don't seem to fit. So far, for many of these there are set rules as to how they should conjugate. One verb that I came across however stands out - להשתמש. http://www.hebrew-verbs.co.il/ says that the verb's route is ש מ ש and התפעל. But why is the root split up? Are there any other verbs like this and/or is there a rule as to why this would happen?
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[User Picture]From: jtersesk
2011-04-05 11:55 pm (UTC)
Hi! If I remember my college Hebrew correctly (and in this, my professor was very repetitive, so I'm sure I do), this phenomenon is fairly common. In the התפעל construction, verbs with roots starting with shin, zayin, or samech often have the first letter transposed with the tav in the prefix. It's just the way the language developed, because it's a bit easier to pronounce that way. (In verbs starting with zayin, the tav often becomes a dalet!) You see it in להשתמש, and I'm sure you'll run across it in other words as you continue your studies. להסתכל (to look) is another good example. The samech and tav are transposed. The root of the verb is samech kaf lamed.

Can anyone think of other examples? It's been a while since I studied this!
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[User Picture]From: gavyarii
2011-04-06 03:20 am (UTC)
Okay thank-you! And that's a rule that actually makes sense, because it does seem more difficult to pronounce התשמש, turns into a ch which seems un-hebrew.
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[User Picture]From: hebrus
2011-04-06 02:33 am (UTC)
jtersesk is absolutely correct, and here are some other examples coming to my mind:

השתבש
השתרש
השתנה
השתגע
השתכר
הסתלק
הסתפר
הצטרף
הצטיין [צין]
הצטייד [ציד]
הצטבר
הצטמק

Note that צ not only switches places with ת, but also turns it into ט.

It should be some example with ש - Sin, but it totally escapes me at the moment...
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[User Picture]From: jtersesk
2011-04-06 03:51 am (UTC)
Oh yes, I forgot about צ doing it too! Thanks for the list!
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[User Picture]From: hebrus
2011-04-06 02:38 am (UTC)
Oh, and by the way, I wouldn't define all those as irregular -- it's just additional rule being applied here. :)
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[User Picture]From: gavyarii
2011-04-06 03:21 am (UTC)
I wasn't sure if this were an irregularity or an exceptional rule, but thanks for the list.
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[User Picture]From: real_skeptic
2011-04-06 07:39 pm (UTC)
And a couple of examples for ז to complement the set hebrus gave.

הזדווג (mate - זוג)
הזדהם (become polluted/soiled/infected - זהם)
הזדקק (need - זקק)
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[User Picture]From: hebrus
2011-04-07 03:56 am (UTC)
Absolutely -- I knew I forgot something... :)
הזדמן
הזדקן
הזדרז
הזדכה

Also, there are roots starting with ת or ט, but somehow I cannot remember anything except ייתכן, and I'm not even sure whether it's התפעל or נפעל
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